MySQL 连接时尽量使用 127.0.0.1 而不是 localhost

原因

Whenever you specify "localhost" or "localhost:port" as server, the MySQL client library will override this and try to connect to a local socket (named pipe on Windows). If you want to use TCP/IP, use "127.0.0.1" instead of "localhost". If the MySQL client library tries to connect to the wrong local socket, you should set the correct path as in your PHP configuration and leave the server field blank.

localhost 使用的 Linux socket,127.0.0.1 使用的是 tcp/ip

为什么我使用 localhost 一直没出问题

因为你的本机中只有一个 mysql 进程, 如果你有一个 node1 运行在 3306, 有一个 node2 运行在 3307

mysql -u root -h localhost -P 3306
mysql -u root -h localhost -P 3307

都会连接到同一个 mysql 进程, 因为 localhost 使用 Linux socket, 所以 -P 字段直接被忽略了, 等价于

mysql -u root -h localhost 
mysql -u root -h localhost 

而 -h 默认是 localhost, 又等价于

mysql -u root 
mysql -u root 

为了避免这种情况(比如你在本地开发只有一个 mysql 进程,线上或者 qa 环境有多个 mysql 进程)最好的方式就是使用 IP

mysql -u root -h 127.0.0.1 -P 3307

使用localhost地址的strace

strace mysql -h localhost -P 3306 -u root &> /tmp/strace_mysql.txt

结果:

execve("/opt/app/mysql/bin/mysql", ["mysql", "-h", "localhost", "-P", "3306", "-u", "root"], [/* 25 vars */]) = 0

......

socket(AF_LOCAL, SOCK_STREAM, 0)        = 3
connect(3, {sa_family=AF_LOCAL, sun_path="/tmp/mysql.sock"}, 110) = 0 // 这里
setsockopt(3, SOL_TCP, TCP_NODELAY, [1], 4) = -1 EOPNOTSUPP (Operation not supported)
setsockopt(3, SOL_SOCKET, SO_KEEPALIVE, [1], 4) = 0

使用ip地址的strace

strace mysql -h 127.0.0.1 -P 3306 -u root &> /tmp/strace_mysql_use_ip.txt
execve("/opt/app/mysql/bin/mysql", ["mysql", "-h", "127.0.0.1", "-P", "3306", "-u", "root"], [/* 25 vars */]) = 0

....

socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, IPPROTO_TCP) = 3
connect(3, {sa_family=AF_INET, sin_port=htons(3306), sin_addr=inet_addr("127.0.0.1")}, 16) = 0
setsockopt(3, SOL_TCP, TCP_NODELAY, [1], 4) = 0
setsockopt(3, SOL_SOCKET, SO_KEEPALIVE, [1], 4) = 0

之前遇到过这个问题,但是没有找到原因,今天看到网友分享了经验,记录下

转自: https://www.v2ex.com/t/623596

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